To date, we have discovered over 150 species of Agaricales from the Canadian border south into the Rocky Mountains, and above treeline (3300 m at 45°N, 3600 m at 38°N). The discovery was made by a team of researchers from Japan's National Institute of Polar Research, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Tokyo, Japan, and However, transitions exist between all these groups. This project will document the diversity of fleshy fungi (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in the alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, and is the first extensive survey of arctic-alpine mushrooms in … Microfungi constitute the most species-rich fungal group in the Arctic, but are only briefly mentioned due to scarcity of knowledge. National Science Foundation Grant No. Pernille Bronken Eidesen and Eike Stübner, Centre for Excellence in Biology Education (bioCEED). Several sequence types, particularly the ancestral ones, were distributed over multiple continents, suggesting effective dispersal. Mycorrhizal fungi have seldom been reported from plants growing on wet soils, however our lab showed (Allen et al. Home of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation. Before picking out and identifying the rare taxa, it was a prerequisite first to compile a total list of all species in the Arctic, and then filter out a preliminary list of the rare and endemic species… Rhytisma salicina produce black (often swollen and glossy) spots on leaves of Salix. THE ARCTIC CARBON BALANCE: Soils Will Hold the Key unsplash-logoTomáš Malík REVIEWER Marcus Griffiths Software Engineer Marcus is a Software Engineer based in Bristol, England. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic. Most of the species are circumpolar and also distributed outside the Arctic. Yukiko Tanabe (NIPR) Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. A collaborative team of researchers from Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Tokyo, Japan, and Laval University in Québec, Canada made the discovery. In recent years, an increasing number of molecular studies have been devoted to studying arctic fungi. Sometimes, only one of the two chemical adaptations are found. Get this from a library! Golden coloured blackening waxcap.Photo: Flemming Rune Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. It is estimated that 1.5 million species of fungi exist on earth. Some of the species are specifically boreal or arctic in their distribution and adaptation. Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. Cold-tolerant organisms are called psychrophilic. Arctic animals and plants have adapted to cold and dark in many ways. The following actions would enable a more thorough analysis of the status and trends of Arctic fungi. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic. Lactarius lanceolatus, are more common in arctic than alpine sites. Analyses of how the supply of reindeer food lichen communities will alter due to vegetation change should be conducted in order to better predict future conditions for populations of reindeer/caribou. • Most sequences from the few Basidiomycota found in Arctic driftwood do not match known species. As for other inconspicuous organism groups, it is obviously desirable to gain a better knowledge of the identity, occurrence and functions of fungal species, and particularly the large number of unrecorded species (mainly microfungi). [Gro Gulden; Kolbjørn Mohn Jenssen; Jens Stordal] -- The ecology and taxonomy of arctic and alpine fungi occurring in Europe. Widespread and conspicuous parasitising fungi in the Arctic are Rhytisma salicina (Ascomycota) and the genus Exobasidium (Basidiomycota). Climate The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Most species were found in the High Arctic zone (29 species), while from the Low Arctic zone and the Subarctic zone, 26 and 19 species … Luis N. Morgado, József Geml, Modifications of Community Structure in Ectomycorrhizal Arctic Fungi as a Consequence of Global Warming, Mushrooms, Humans and Nature in a Changing World, 10.1007/978-3-030-37378-8, (451-472), (2020). The conservation status of Arctic fungi is predicted to scarcely be affected within the next decades but greatly changed over the long term. Masaharu Tsuji is a postdoctoral fellow at Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research, who was not involved in the writing of the book’s chapter on Antarctic fungi. The unavoidable greening of the Arctic will steadily and significantly affect the distribution and abundance of fungi, as habitat conditions gradually transform the distribution and abundance of plants. Cadophora species are the most frequent Ascomycota, and soft rot is the most prevalent form of decay. Alternaria alternata is one of the fungi species researchers identified in the Byrd region near the South Pole (Source: WikiCommons). Hence, total fungal-species richness in the Arctic may exceed 13,000. An evaluation of the conservation status of Arctic fungi is feasible, and the mapping of rare and endemic species is necessary. They constitute a large portion of Arctic biodiversity and are essential in the functioning of Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. It looked like the cough syrup in a bottle. Except for macrolichens, however, their presence and significance has often been overlooked and poorly appreciated in the Arctic, despite being species rich, abundant and pivotal in carbon and nutrient cycling. The most widely distributed smut fungi in Greenland were Anthracoidea bigelowii, A. elynae, Microbotryum bistortarum, and M. vinosum. Saturated lipids and ergosterol harden in low temperatures, which make fungal cells stiff and brittle in cold conditions. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi, e.g. I boiled some caribou lichen in a pot for a long time, following my brother in-law’s advice. Of the several parasites that affect these species, one of the most common is the tapeworm. While the occurrence, distribution and ecology for lichenized fungi (lichens) are reasonably well known, less is known about non-lichenized fungi (normally just called fungi), including lichenicolous fungi (fungi living on lichens) and in particular, microfungi. Specialise in a few fungal types, such as colourful waxcaps, coral fungi or boletes. 2006 Can J Bot 84: 1094-1100) these fungi are abundant in High Arctic Ranunculus. Species included in vol. Fungi are pivotal in Arctic terrestrial food-webs. Fungi are the most species rich group of organisms after insects. Arctic driftwood can provide unique insight into the diversity of colonizing and decaying fungi at the interface of extremely cold terrestrial and marine environments. Obligate marine fungi grow exclusively in the marine habitat while wholly or sporadically submerged in sea water. A few of the many species include: Lichens grow in mats on the ground and on rocks across the Arctic. In Arctic and alpine tundras, the number of species of plants and animals is usually small when compared with other regions, yet the number of individuals per species is often high. Lead Authors: Anders Dahlberg and Helga Bültmann, Contributing Authors: Cathy L. Cripps, Guðríður Gyða Eyjólfsdóttir, Gro Gulden, Hörður Kristinsson and Mikhail Zhurbenko. Fungi in the Arctic – diversity of species and adaptation to cold climate. THE ARCTIC CARBON BALANCE: Soils Will Hold the Key unsplash-logoTomáš Malík REVIEWER Marcus Griffiths Software Engineer Marcus is a Software Engineer based in Bristol, England. Scientists identify two new species of fungi in retreating Arctic glacier January 15, 2019 Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. This is a true example of symbiotic relationships. Sometimes, only one of the two chemical adaptations are found. Climate The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Therefore, we judge that these changes will only rarely affect their conservation status in the immediate future. By comparison, all living mammals comprise fewer than 6,400 species . The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Flora / Fauna. A solution for most psychrophilic animals, plants and fungi to cope with the formation of ice crystals is the production of anti-freeze substances. Many varieties of fungi can thrive in this type of environment, since they survive by decomposing organic remains and can grow in the absence of sunlight. Globally, approximately 100 000 species of fungi have been described, but their true diversity may be as high as 5 million species (Blackwell 2011). Very few are restricted to the arctic areas. Most fungi are thought to have arrived in Antarctica via airborne currents or birds. 1999). The dominant fungi, and particularly ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi, appear to be cosmopolitan species. Enhanced monitoring and functional research would enable more accurate prediction of how fungal diversity and the ecosystem functions of fungi will develop with climate change. Arrhenia salina, are ecologically bound to the arctic zone. Reflection: The Arctic Ice caps are melting which can be very detrimental because the water levels could raise to a height that could hurt civilization. Two main vegetation types, dry heath tundra and moist tussock tundra are found throughout the region; dry heath tundra is dominated by Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris, Vaccinium species and fruticose lichens, while the moist tussock tundra is dominated by Betula nana, Salix pulchra and the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum (Walker et al. In Russian, English summary.]. Most species appear to be present throughout the Arctic, and they also occur in alpine habitats outside the Arctic, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Fungi fun! Climate. St.-Petersburg. Agaricus aristocratus, a saprotrophic fungus. Few Basidiomycota were found, with many of them having poor sequence matches to known species. The oldest fungus ever found: Billion-year-old fossilized fungi preserved in shales from Arctic Canada push the record back by over 400 million years Tiny fossils of fungi … Fungi produce different kinds of proteins and alcohols inside their hyphae to prevent their cells from freezing. Climate The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Ocean. Report unusual finds to your local records group; find a list here. Arctic soil fungi are capable of growth at sub-zero temperatures, melanized forms are frequent, host specificity is low and there is evidence that community composition alters under experimental warming. A checklist for Arctic fungi should be compiled. A list of Arctic permafrost fungi (~80 species) that were detected by using cultural methods is presented. Zygomycetes; Ascomycetes; Basidiomycetes. Here we review the knowledge and status of Arctic macroscopic fungi, i.e. Similarly, terricolous lichen communities will be affected by increased competition from vascular plants. Less than 2-3% of species are thought to be endemic. Despite feather fungi being an important component of the Arctic fungal flora, their ecological role and diversity are not fully known. The large potential of fungal analysis of deep sequenced environmental samples will largely benefit by clarified fungal taxonomy. Blanchette, meanwhile, made another observation: one species of Antarctic fungus appears to be feasting on petroleum spilled from leaky fuel containers that Scott left behind at Cape Evans. In other words, there appear to be no genetic isolation among populations inhabiting different geographic areas. My project is to characterize endorhizal fungi in Ranunculus from diverse Arctic and Prairie sites. Reindeer lichen (also known as Caribou moss) is found across the Arctic. They contain more unsaturated lipids than fungi farther south and lower amounts of ergosterol (the fungal equivalent to cholesterol). Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)Borgir, Nordurslod, 600 Akureyri, IcelandP: (+354) 462-3350, E:caff [AT] caff [DOT] isemailProtector.addCloakedMailto("ep_e3a37a8b", 1); © 2020 Arctic biodiversity, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) - Terms and Conditions, Diversity of Arctic lichens and lichenicolous fungi, Golden coloured blackening waxcap.Photo: Flemming Rune. One challenge for organisms in cold environments is the formation of ice crystals. The fungi have largely a cryptic life form and have therefore not been exhaustively inventoried. Flora / Fauna. The biota and its adaptations. Cadophora species are common in Arctic driftwood and they play an important role in decomposition. Given favorable weather conditions, some may produce short-lived, sometimes prominent, sporocarps (mushrooms), but predominantly, and for many species exclusively, they exist as cryptic and hidden mycelia in e.g. I boiled them when all the people in our camp were sick. (Mucoromycota) showed absence of detectable ergosterol, but presence of the unsaturated stearidonic acid. Analyses of how vegetation changes may, based on knowledge of fungal ecology, predict potential habitats for fungi in space and time. The knowledge of distribution and ecology for all fungi, but in particularly for non-lichenized fungi, should be improved. This change is in progress already, but studies of Arctic soil fungal communities imply that the response as yet is relatively slow (Timling & Taylor 2012). Six of my family members were sick in bed. “All species are growing in the same field right next to each other. Few fungi are endemic to the Arctic. Scientists identify two new species of fungi in retreating Arctic glacier. Long-term funding is necessary to maintain and train Arctic specialists in mycology and lichenology and to ensure research and monitoring to take place. They are not a taxonomic group, but share a common habitat. Lichens are a conspicuous and colorful component of Alaska’s vegetation and one of the most species-rich groups of organisms to inhabit the Arctic. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. about 50 lichen species on less than 1 m2. Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. Most species were found in the High Arctic zone (29 species), while from the Low Arctic zone and the Subarctic zone, 26 and 19 species were known, respectively. However, this observation is only of theoretical interest, since in most arctic areas the ground is covered by insulating snow, preventing the ground from reaching temperatures as low as the air temperatures above. The identity and taxonomy of species with unclear status (e.g. Conservation status should be assessed for Arctic lichens and fungi, preferentially at both the Arctic and global scales. The present volume contains species photographed in the Swiss Alps. He told me to stop boiling them when the water turned black. The most widely distributed smut fungi in Greenland were Anthracoidea bigelowii, A. elynae, Microbotryum bistortarum, and M. vinosum. In the Arctic Ocean, there are very few large aquatic plants. 9971210 June 1999 to 2002 Project Summary. The known number of fungal species in the Arctic is presently about 4,350, of which 2,600 are macrofungi and 1,750 are lichens, the rest are microfungi. Explore the diverse groups of protist species in the Arctic, including the well-known group of algae species. The Arctic Carbon Balance: Soils Will Hold the Key. Arrhenia sp. Long-term monitoring within representative Arctic habitats would enable us to document and follow fungal species shifts over time. For each section/post/page the name of the authors is presented in connection with the material. Arctic soil fungi are capable of growth at sub-zero temperatures, melanized forms are frequent, host speciﬁcity is low and there is evidence that community composition alters under experimental warming. The next day, they were all up and about. For example, the psychrophilic Mortierella elongata (Mucoromycota) showed absence of detectable ergosterol, but presence of the unsaturated stearidonic acid. However, over time the effects of climate change and subsequently transformed vegetation will have profound effects on the distribution and composition of fungi and consequently also their ecosystem functions. Bryoglossum gracile; Cantharellula umbonata Learn about the kingdom Protista, which includes all those organisms that are not bacteria, animals, true fungi, or green plants. 212 p. 1 fig. Many indigenous Arctic fungi are generalists in their ability to colonize and decompose organic substrata, with massive effects on carbon cycling. The tundra is a biome, or a major type of ecological community, characterized by arctic conditions and a relative lack of vegetation. They tend to grow in swampy areas. Saturated lipids and ergosterol harden in low temperatures, which make fungal cells stiff and brittle in cold conditions. Arctic, we had to approach this task in a different way from what was done in the case of vascular plants. For example, many aquatic hyphomycetous species, that have been traditionally considered saprotrophic, have been isolated from surface‐sterilized roots suggesting that these fungi may be root endophytes as well (Sati et al. I want to tell you something I learned about plants from the late Kakkik that I tried myself. by Forest-Ecology | July 2, 2019 | Current Research, Ecology, Fungi. This also could bring fungi that would harm the soil and because they are so microscopic they could go unnoticed until they are harming us. Many of the Arctic animals on this list have special adaptations that enable them to cope with the extreme conditions of the far north. The number of fungi is generally small, which is in contrast with their pronounced species diversity. 2001. ... jaguar, parrot, python, frog, chimpanzee, fruit bat, insects, banana plant, fungi, and slime molds. Pictures were kindly contributed by many individuals. The content of this side is kindly provided by several authors, all of whom are acknowledged experts in their respective fields and working in the Arctic environment. Scientists have identified about 120,000 species of fungi so far, but estimate there are as many as 3.3 million species in all. In addition, they use these substances to thaw the soil around them for mycelium growth and uptake of nutrition. 1) Assess phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity of selected genera of arctic fungi Fungi represent one of the largest groups of living organisms, with an estimated >95% species still unknown. I waited for them to cool down and I gave each sick person some to drink. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic (A)micrographic image of Vishniacozyma ellesmerensis (B) colonies of … High intraspecific diversity and long-range dispersal in arctic fungi: Despite the high genetic diversity observed, we found no phylogeographic structure in the three arctic species examined (L. umbellifera, F. cucullata, and F. nivalis), indicating high levels of gene flow across the Arctic. Other habitats of high lichen diversity are Arctic and Antarctic regions . Of these about 30% are ectomycorrhizal associates of 14 species and two varieties of Salix, in addition to Dryas integrifolia, Arctostaphylos rubra, and Cassiope tetragona. You’re talking about between 25 to 30 species,” says Yazbek. Soil-dwelling fungi benefit from this during the cold winter. Among the rust fungi, where most species in the Tem– perate Zone ordinarily pass through several generations of spore formation, there is a tendency to abbreviate this complicated life cycle by omitting some of the spore forms. This type of symbiotic relationship is seen in all the biomes of the world. Recently, patterns in Arctic lichen community composition have received attention in response to expanding shrub communities and increasing fire frequency and extent, both of which are linked to declines in lichen abundance. Arctic and Alpine Fungi A series of guides to the species of mushroom that grow above the timber line and north of the polar circle. Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. About 444 species of marine fungi have been described, including seven genera and ten species of basidiomycetes, and 177 g… A lichen is a composite organism consisting of a fungus and an alga and/or cyanobacteria growing together in a symbiotic partnership. Although not enough work has been done to provide an accurate species count, it is known that hundreds of different fungal species occur in tundra habitats. Fungi are an extraordinary group of organisms. All four classes of Fungi occur in the Arctic and Subarctic, probably in approximately the same proportion as they occur in warmer climates, but the number of species tends to be smaller than in more temperate regions. Review this book. Effects of climate change on diversity of Arctic fungi are predicted to be gradual but radical over time, due to changes in vascular plant flora and vegetation, especially the expansion of shrubs. The Arctic Carbon Balance: Soils Will Hold the Key. Arctic and Alpine fungi. Future research is warranted with a focus … The current review encompasses studies of mycorrhizal and filamentous decomposer fungi plus yeasts from cold Arctic and Antarctic environments, therefore including basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and microfungi (but not lichenized fungi). The most well-known group of fungi in the Arctic is the lichenized fungi (lichens) because they grow on substrate surfaces and often contribute conspicuously, and colorfully, to Arctic vegetation. [Reports 1750 fungi species. poorly known fungi and potentially endemic lichens) should be critically examined. The known number of fungal species in the Arctic is presently about 4,350, of which 2,600 are macrofungi and 1,750 are lichens, the rest are microfungi. by Forest-Ecology | July 2, 2019 | Current Research, Ecology, Fungi. Together they are intimately connected to their environment. All terrestrial ecosystems have a high, and largely unknown, species richness of fungi. They are acknowledged in connection with the photographs. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. Host index, and 280 bibliographic references are provided. Of 1971 lichen species and associated fungi reported from the Sonoran Desert, about 25% studied since 1990 are new. Fungi in arctic environments may experience frost nearly every day in the short growing season. January 16, 2019 National Institute of Polar Research . Hence, total … Bryophytes as environmental indicators, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=80&v=5_rprVa-RY4. Further, we wanted to (4) assess whether the root-associated fungi are host generalist, as is typically the case for arctic ECM fungi, or whether they show some level of host specificity. My sister’s late husband used to know about nirnait, caribou lichen, the plants that caribou eat. Mycorrhizal, saprotrophic and pathogenic fungi drive nutrient and energy cycling, and lichens are important for primary production. Arctic and Alpine Fungi Volume 3: Agarics of the Swiss Alps . Created by learningarcticbiology in WordPress using Elementor and Astra theme, Another adaptation to low temperatures is the chemical composition of the cell walls of Arctic fungi. They are long and you pull them out. Their ecology can be divided into saprotrophs, parasites and mutualists. Check-list. Fungi are heterotrophic organisms feeding by osmotrophy. Fungi from arthropod and invertebrate animals Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi, appear to be cosmopolitan species. Such rusts with drastically abbreviated life cycle are called microcyclic Uredinales (1). Reindeer lichens Cladonia subgenus Cladina spp. In this regard, we (5) investigate whether the phylogenetic distance between the host plant species reflects which fungi are colonizing specific plant species. Food and feeder relationships are simple, and they are more subject to upset if a critical species disappears or decreases in number. Still, the Arctic is home to more than 21,000 species: mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013: Species Diversity in the Arctic). Many indigenous Arctic fungi are generalists in their ability to colonize and decompose organic substrata, with massive effects on carbon cycling. Keep up-to-date with NHBS products, news and offers Exobasidium, attack plants from the heather family (Ericaceae) and deform and discolour the leaves (pale yellow to red). Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).They can appear either below ground or above ground where they may be picked by hand.Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Russian Arctic Fungi. Funding. Distributional and ecological knowledge is reasonably good for macrolichens but sparser for fungi and microlichens. The fungi have largely a cryptic life form and have therefore not been exhaustively inventoried. Agaricus aristocratus, a saprotrophic fungus. Lactarius lanceolatus, are more common in arctic than alpine sites. Most fungi in the arctic environment also occur in alpine ecosystems at lower latitudes. This is particularly apparent in the high Arctic and in reindeer lichen-dominated vegetation types in the sub-Arctic. Aalasi Joamie in Joamie et al. Of the lichens, 143 species are listed as Arctic endemics, but it is likely that the major part will prove to be synonyms of other species. As some species are taxonomically complicated and have only recently been described, it is believed that some species that are currently only found in arctic ecosystems may have a wider distribution and could be found in lower alpine environments, e.g. Most are typical arctic-alpine fungi at their furthest southern extent in NA. My mother had been admitted to the hospital and we were waiting for her return in August. Fungi is a key group of organisms with high species richness and large significance for ecosystem processes in the Arctic. They contain more unsaturated lipids than fungi farther south and lower amounts of ergosterol (the fungal equivalent to cholesterol). soil and in living or dead insect or plant tissues. Abstract. The remaining part of the fungi is in general terms just called fungi and will here be referred to as fungi. Because lichens are often a major component of forage … Some ectomycorrhizal fungi, e.g. Another adaptation to low temperatures is the chemical composition of the cell walls of Arctic fungi. Efforts to analyze the effects of slowly shifting fungal communities on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and carbon fluxes are needed. Technique Could be Applied to All Nitrogen-Poor Ecosystems. Even with these caveats, present knowledge largely enables us to predict the future of Arctic fungi. Laboratory studies have shown that arctic fungi can survive temperatures below -100 ºC if they are surrounded by anti-freeze substances. Facultative marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or freshwater habitats, but are capable of living or even sporulating in a marine habitat. Series: Arctic and Alpine Fungi Volume: 3. Order Agaricales. For each section/post/page the name of the authors is, Focus Area: Archipelagoes of the Barents Sea, 9. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. Customer Reviews. Future challenges are to determine the drivers of fungal diversity, whether or … The changing vegetation will transform the fungal diversity and thereby affect ecosystem services provided by fungi, such as plant’s uptake of nutrients, decomposition and long-term carbon sequestration in soil, although unknown how and to what degree. Three volumes on lichens of the greater Sonoran Desert region have been published (111, 20). Many species are shared with areas of the Arctic. I was the only one up and about when we were living in a fishing camp. Lichen species are an important component of the many biological communities across Arctic Alaska. Please browse the fungal classes below to learn about different species of Arctic fungi! In the current study, fungal cultures were isolated from feathers (barnacle goose, common eider, and glaucous gull) collected in the Ny-Ålesund region, Svalbard.
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